混沌工程之 ChaosToolkit K8S 使用之刪除 POD 實驗

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什麼是 ChaosToolkit?

今天我們來玩一下混沌工程的開源工具 ChaosToolkit ,它的目標是提供一個免費,開放,社群驅動的工具集以及api。 ​

官方原始碼連結:https://github.com/chaostoolkit/chaostoolkit

要想了解這個工具就必須知道混沌工程原則中提到的要點。如下所示: 在這裡插入圖片描述

記往這裡提到的第一個要點,建立穩態假設。 ​

在執行這個工具之前,我們先來看一下它的架構。

在這裡插入圖片描述

簡單來解釋一下,就是 ChaosToolkit 通過 Drivers 來操作你的被測系統。

它的功能點包括如下部分:

在這裡插入圖片描述 在這裡插入圖片描述

實驗準備

下面我們把工具裝起來玩一下。 ​

環境說明:

  1. CentOS7.8
  2. k8s 1.19.5
  3. 示例應用

安裝 python3

bash sudo yum install python3 python3-venv

安裝 pipenv

bash [email protected] ~ % pip3 install pipenv

安裝 chaos-toolkit 的 k8s 擴充套件和報告模組

bash pip3 install -U chaostoolkit pip3 install -U chaostoolkit-kubernetes pip3 install -U chaostoolkit-reporting

如果你需要操作其他平臺,也可以安裝相應擴充套件。

建立虛擬環境

bash python3 -m venv .bundler source .bundler/bin/activate 為了不影響其他環境,我們這裡用 python 的虛擬環境操作。 ​

注意:以上安裝過程是在 k8s 的 master 機器上執行的,如果你不是在 k8s 上安裝的,可以配置相應的k8s上下文,具體操作請參考:https://chaostoolkit.org/drivers/kubernetes/。 ​

實驗實操

chaos discover 探索試驗

首先執行 discover 命令,chaostoolkit 會根據 ./kube/config 中的內容生成 discovery.json 檔案,這個檔案中會包括所有可以對k8s執行的操作集合。執行成功的結果如下:

bash (.bundler) [[email protected] chaostoolkit_scenarios]# chaos discover chaostoolkit-kubernetes [2021-06-23 12:18:07 INFO] Attempting to download and install package 'chaostoolkit-kubernetes' [2021-06-23 12:18:08 INFO] Package downloaded and installed in current environment [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Discovering capabilities from chaostoolkit-kubernetes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for probes in chaosk8s.probes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.deployment.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.deployment.probes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.node.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.node.probes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.pod.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for probes in chaosk8s.pod.probes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.replicaset.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.service.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.service.probes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.statefulset.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for probes in chaosk8s.statefulset.probes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for actions in chaosk8s.crd.actions [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Searching for probes in chaosk8s.crd.probes [2021-06-23 12:18:09 INFO] Discovery outcome saved in ./discovery.json (.bundler) [[email protected] chaostoolkit_scenarios]#

chaos init 生成試驗

執行初始化命令,可以根據提示建立一個混沌試驗。
```bash (.bundler) [[email protected] chaostoolkit_scenarios]# chaos init You are about to create an experiment. This wizard will walk you through each step so that you can build the best experiment for your needs.

An experiment is made up of three elements: - a steady-state hypothesis [OPTIONAL] - an experimental method - a set of rollback activities [OPTIONAL]

Only the method is required. Also your experiment will not run unless you define at least one activity (probe or action) within it Experiment's title: E2 #這裡是配置一個試驗名

A steady state hypothesis defines what 'normality' looks like in your system The steady state hypothesis is a collection of conditions that are used, at the beginning of an experiment, to decide if the system is in a recognised 'normal' state. The steady state conditions are then used again when your experiment is complete to detect where your system may have deviated in an interesting, weakness-detecting way

Initially you may not know what your steady state hypothesis is and so instead you might create an experiment without one This is why the stead state hypothesis is optional. Do you want to define a steady state hypothesis now? [y/N]: y # 建立穩態假說,請注意,這個是混沌工程中的重要概念,但是在其他的大部分混沌工具中都看不到這一步 Hypothesis's title: H2

You may now define probes that will determine the steady-state of your system. Add an activity 1) all_microservices_healthy 2) deployment_is_fully_available 3) deployment_is_not_fully_available 4) microservice_available_and_healthy 5) microservice_is_not_available 6) read_microservices_logs 7) service_endpoint_is_initialized 8) count_pods 9) pod_is_not_available 10) pods_in_conditions 11) pods_in_phase 12) pods_not_in_phase 13) read_pod_logs 14) statefulset_fully_available 15) statefulset_not_fully_available 16) get_cluster_custom_object 17) get_custom_object 18) list_cluster_custom_objects 19) list_custom_objects Activity (0 to escape): 1 # 選擇穩態假說的判斷點,簡單來說,這裡就是建立一個預期結果

!!!DEPRECATED!!! 1) kill_microservice 2) remove_service_endpoint Do you want to use this probe? [y/N]: y # 確定是否使用上面選擇的探針

A steady-state probe requires a tolerance value, within which your system is in a reognised normal state.

What is the tolerance for this probe?: normal

You now need to fill the arguments for this activity. Default values will be shown between brackets. You may simply press return to use it or not set any value. Argument's value for 'ns' [default]: chaosnamespace # 輸入k8s中要操作的名稱空間 Do you want to select another activity? [y/N]: y # 是否選擇一個的操作動作 Add an activity 1) all_microservices_healthy 2) deployment_is_fully_available 3) deployment_is_not_fully_available 1) kill_microservice 4) microservice_available_and_healthy 5) microservice_is_not_available 6) read_microservices_logs 7) service_endpoint_is_initialized 8) count_pods 9) pod_is_not_available 10) pods_in_conditions 11) pods_in_phase 12) pods_not_in_phase 13) read_pod_logs 14) statefulset_fully_available 15) statefulset_not_fully_available 16) get_cluster_custom_object 17) get_custom_object 18) list_cluster_custom_objects 19) list_custom_objects Activity (0 to escape): 1 # 選擇具體的動作

!!!DEPRECATED!!! Do you want to use this probe? [y/N]: y # 確定使用上面選擇的動作

You now need to fill the arguments for this activity. Default values will be shown between brackets. You may simply press return to use it or not set any value. Argument's value for 'ns' [default]: Do you want to select another activity? [y/N]: N # 是否要新增另一個試驗動作,這裡我不再添加了

An experiment's method contains actions and probes. Actions vary real-world events in your system to determine if your steady-state hypothesis is maintained when those events occur.

An experimental method can also contain probes to gather additional information about your system as your method is executed. Do you want to define an experimental method? [y/N]: y # 選擇一個試驗具體方法

Add an activity

1) kill_microservice

2) remove_service_endpoint

3) scale_microservice

4) start_microservice

5) all_microservices_healthy

6) deployment_is_fully_available

7) deployment_is_not_fully_available

8) microservice_available_and_healthy

9) microservice_is_not_available

10) read_microservices_logs

11) service_endpoint_is_initialized

12) create_deployment

13) delete_deployment

14) scale_deployment

15) deployment_available_and_healthy

16) deployment_fully_available

17) deployment_not_fully_available

18) cordon_node

19) create_node

20) delete_nodes

21) drain_nodes

22) uncordon_node

23) get_nodes

24) delete_pods

25) exec_in_pods

26) terminate_pods

27) count_pods

28) pod_is_not_available

29) pods_in_conditions

30) pods_in_phase

31) pods_not_in_phase

32) read_pod_logs

33) delete_replica_set

34) create_service_endpoint

35) delete_service

36) service_is_initialized

37) create_statefulset

38) remove_statefulset

39) scale_statefulset

40) statefulset_fully_available

41) statefulset_not_fully_available

42) create_cluster_custom_object

43) create_custom_object

44) delete_cluster_custom_object

45) delete_custom_object

46) patch_cluster_custom_object

47) patch_custom_object

48) replace_cluster_custom_object

49) replace_custom_object

50) get_cluster_custom_object

51) get_custom_object

52) list_cluster_custom_objects

53) list_custom_objects Activity (0 to escape): 24 # 這裡我選擇第24個方法:刪除一個POD

!!!DEPRECATED!!! Do you want to use this action? [y/N]: y # 確認選擇

You now need to fill the arguments for this activity. Default values will be shown between brackets. You may simply press return to use it or not set any value.

Argument's value for 'name': DeleteRedisPOD # 給這個方法命名 Argument's value for 'ns' [default]: chaosnamespace # 確定要操作的k8s名稱空間 Argument's value for 'label_selector' [name in ({name})]: app=redis # 輸入要操作物件的標籤,以便可以找到操作物件 Do you want to select another activity? [y/N]: N # 是否新增另一個動作,這裡我不再新增

An experiment may optionally define a set of remedial actions that are used to rollback the system to a given state.

Do you want to add some rollbacks now? [y/N]: N # 是否添加回滾動作,這裡我是要刪除redis的POD,因為k8s會自動拉起來,所以我不用回滾動作

Experiment created and saved in './experiment.json' # 生成了試驗檔案

(.bundler) [[email protected] chaostoolkit_scenarios]# ```

Chaos Run 執行案例

bash (.bundler) [[email protected] chaostoolkit_scenarios]# chaos run experiment.json [2021-06-28 23:03:23 INFO] Validating the experiment's syntax [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Experiment looks valid [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Running experiment: E2 [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Steady-state strategy: default [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Rollbacks strategy: default [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Steady state hypothesis: H2 [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Probe: all_microservices_healthy [2021-06-28 23:03:24 WARNING] all_microservices_healthy function is DEPRECATED and will be removed in the next releases, please use all_pods_healthy instead [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Steady state hypothesis is met! [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Playing your experiment's method now... [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Action: delete_pods [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Steady state hypothesis: H2 [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Probe: all_microservices_healthy [2021-06-28 23:03:24 WARNING] all_microservices_healthy function is DEPRECATED and will be removed in the next releases, please use all_pods_healthy instead [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Steady state hypothesis is met! [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Let's rollback... [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] No declared rollbacks, let's move on. [2021-06-28 23:03:24 INFO] Experiment ended with status: completed (.bundler) [[email protected] chaostoolkit_scenarios]#

檢查結果

```bash 執行試驗前:

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get pods -n chaosnamespace -o wide NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE NOMINATED NODE READINESS GATES

........................... redis-master-b96c9795b-nqzmr 1/1 Running 0 3d9h 10.100.220.84 s6 redis-slave-6b8d456947-6r42k 1/1 Running 0 3d9h 10.100.220.86 s6 redis-slave-6b8d456947-z55m5 1/1 Running 0 3d9h 10.100.53.206 s7

執行試驗後:

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get pods -n chaosnamespace -o wide NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE NOMINATED NODE READINESS GATES

...............................

redis-master-b96c9795b-92rc6 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 3s s6 redis-master-b96c9795b-nqzmr 0/1 Terminating 0 3d9h 10.100.220.84 s6 redis-slave-6b8d456947-5m2xt 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 2s s6 redis-slave-6b8d456947-6r42k 1/1 Terminating 0 3d9h 10.100.220.86 s6 redis-slave-6b8d456947-fj4xc 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 3s s7 redis-slave-6b8d456947-z55m5 1/1 Terminating 0 3d9h 10.100.53.206 s7

POD完全啟動後:

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get pods -n chaosnamespace -o wide

NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE NOMINATED NODE READINESS GATES

.......................

redis-master-b96c9795b-92rc6 1/1 Running 0 5m43s 10.100.220.89 s6

redis-slave-6b8d456947-5m2xt 1/1 Running 0 5m42s 10.100.220.90 s6

redis-slave-6b8d456947-fj4xc 1/1 Running 0 5m43s 10.100.53.211 s7

[[email protected] ~]# ``` 從上面的結果可以看到,試驗是執行成功的,幾個redisPOD都被殺掉並被k8s拉起來了。 ​

小結

今天我們就寫這一個試驗,你可以根據同樣的步驟去生成其他試驗。